What are the four sources of public opinion

what are the four sources of public opinion

Start studying 4 sources of public opinion. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Public opinion - Public opinion - Components of public opinion: attitudes and values: How many people actually form opinions on a given issue, as well as what sorts of opinions they form, depends partly on their immediate situations, partly on more-general social-environmental factors, and partly on their preexisting knowledge, attitudes, and values.

Public opinionan aggregate of the individual what does the word satiety mean, attitudes, and beliefs about a particular topic, expressed by kpinion significant proportion of a community. Gour scholars treat the aggregate as a synthesis of the views of all or a certain segment of society; others regard it as a collection of many differing or opposing views.

Writing inthe American sociologist Charles Horton Cooley emphasized public opinion as a ard of interaction and mutual influence rather than a state of broad agreement. The American political scientist V.

The influence of public opinion is not restricted to politics and elections. It is a powerful force in many other spheres, such as culturefashion, literature and the arts, consumer spending, and marketing and public relations.

Contrasting understandings of public opinion have taken shape over the centuries, especially as new methods of measuring public opinion have been applied to politics, commerce, religionand social activism. Political scientists and some historians have tended to emphasize the role of public opinion in government and politics, paying sourxes attention to its influence on the development of government policy.

Indeed, some political scientists have regarded public opinion as equivalent to the national will. In such ehat limited sense, however, there can be only one public opinion on an issue at any given time. Sociologistsin contrast, usually conceive of public opinion as a sourcea of social interaction and communication. According to this view, there can be no public opinion on an issue unless members of the public communicate with each other.

Even if their individual opinions are quite similar to begin with, their beliefs will not constitute a public opinion until they are conveyed to others in some form, whether through television, radio, e-mail, social media, print media, phone, or in-person conversation. Sociologists also point to the possibility of there being many different public opinions on a given issue at the same time.

Although one body of opinion may dominate or reflect government policy, for example, this does not preclude the existence of other organized bodies of opinion on political topics. The sociological approach also recognizes the importance of public opinion in areas that have little or nothing to do with government.

What are theories of intelligence very nature of public opinion, according to the American researcher Irving Crespiis to be interactive, multidimensional, and continuously changing.

Thus, fads and fashions are appropriate subject matter for students of public opinion, as are public attitudes toward celebrities or corporations. Nearly all scholars of public opinion, regardless of the way they may define it, agree that, in order for a phenomenon to count as public souces, at least four conditions must be satisfied: what are the four sources of public opinion there must be an issue, 2 there must be a significant number of individuals who express opinions on the issue, 3 at least some of these opinions must reflect some kind of a consensusand 4 this consensus must directly or indirectly exert influence.

Politicians and publicists, for what are the four sources of public opinion, seek ways to influence voting and purchasing decisions, respectively—hence their wish to determine any attitudes and opinions that may affect the desired behaviour. It is often the case that opinions expressed in public differ from those expressed in private.

Some views—even though widely shared—may not be expressed at all. Thus, in an authoritarian or totalitarian state, a great many people may be opposed to the government but may fear to express their attitudes even to their families and friends. In such cases, an antigovernment public opinion necessarily fails to develop.

Although the term public opinion was not used until the 18th century, phenomena that closely resemble public opinion seem to have occurred in many historical epochs. The ancient histories of Babylonia and Assyria, for example, contain references to popular attitudes, including the legend of a caliph who would disguise himself and mingle with the people to hear what they said about his governance.

Opinioh prophets of ancient Israel sometimes justified the policies of the government to the people and sometimes appealed to the people to oppose the government. In both cases, they were concerned with swaying the opinion of the crowd. And in the classical democracy of Athens, it was commonly observed that everything depended on the people, and the people were dependent on the word. Wealth, fame, and respect—all could be given or taken away by persuading the populace.

By contrast Plato found little of spurces in public opinion, since he believed that society should rhe governed by philosopher-kings whose wisdom far exceeded the knowledge and intellectual capabilities how to enable gps on iphone the general population.

Public opinion. Article Introduction Theoretical and practical conceptions What are the four sources of public opinion background Antiquity The Middle Ages to the early modern period The 18th century to the present The formation and change of public opinion Components of public opinion: attitudes and values Formation of attitudes Factors influencing public opinion Environmental factors Mass media and social media Interest groups Opinion leaders Complex influences Public opinion and government Public opinion polling Opinion research Regional and global surveys World opinion Political polls Methodology The universe The sample Probability sampling Nonprobability sampling Size and precision Allowance for chance and error Sample size and definition Phrasing of questions Interviewing Tabulation Presentation of findings Nonscientific polling Criticisms and justifications Show more.

Videos Images. Additional Info. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.

Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. Academia - Understanding Public Opinion. Author of International Political Communication. See Article History. Get a Britannica What is a contraction in english language subscription and gain access to exclusive content.

Subscribe Now. Load Next Page.

Related Questions

Nearly all scholars of public opinion, regardless of the way they may define it, agree that, in order for a phenomenon to count as public opinion, at least four conditions must be satisfied: (1) there must be an issue, (2) there must be a significant number of individuals who express opinions on the issue, (3) at least some of these opinions must reflect some kind of a consensus, and (4) this consensus must directly or indirectly exert influence. (1) Economic status (2) Partisanship & Ideology (3) education (4) age (5) gender (6) religion (7) race & ethnicity (8) geographic region List 8 sources of division among public opinion. paying too much in taxes People with higher incomes tend to believe that they are (blank). Sources of public opinion come from news coverage and other media. In general, public opinion tends to follow what opinion is being expressed in popular culture and news coverage.

Asked by Wiki User. Sources of public opinion come from news coverage and other media. In general, public opinion tends to follow what opinion is being expressed in popular culture and news coverage. The influence of public opinion on public policy is limited by how informed the public is.

Public opinion has to be regulated by the constitution. I'm not interested in airing my grievances in the court of public opinion. Public opinion is simply not factual. Who knows, in Russia public opinion is kept private, if the person with the opinion has any sense.

Gerhard Loh has written: 'Irland in der Berichterstattung deutscher Tageszeitungen ' -- subject s : Foreign news, German Foreign public opinion, History, Press and politics, Press coverage, Public opinion, Sources. There are 3 qualities of public opinion, Direction, Intensity and Stability. Public opinion in which country? Many countries were involved.

Professional public opinion polling organizations, such as the Gallop Poll, would have on staff positions called Public Opinion Polling Specialists. Another title might be Public Opinion Analysts. Affect public opinion. A opinion is just a singular belief, generally or an individual or group of people.

Public opinion refers specifically to the opinion s of many, for example the opinion or opinions of a society or group. What affects public opinion toward the school district? The public opinion was that the USA should not be involved in a civil war There is a positive and strong relationship between the press and public opinion.

Pollsters are people who conduct a poll to test public opinion, etc. It Is becausethe Ask Question. Literature and Language. See Answer. Top Answer. Wiki User Answered Related Questions. What are seven sources that public officials use to determine public opinion? Sources of American public opinion include?

The influence of public opinion on public policy is limited by what? Why is the opinion of the public about a popular movie or television program not a good example of public opinion? How do you use public opinion in a sentence?

What has the author Leonard Leshuk written? What is public opinion? How do you use a sentence using public opinion? What are the public opinion in Russia? What has the author Gerhard Loh written?

What are the Qualities of Public Opinion? What was the public opinion of The Korean War? What is the specialist to conduct specific public opinion research called? What is the public opinion on Citibank? What is the nature of public opinion? What is the public opinion about school uniforms? What do opinion leaders tend to do? What role does media play in forming public opinion and public policy?

What has the author A N Zashikhin written? Difference between Public opinion and opinion? What is the relation between press and public opinion? Who measures public opinion for a campaign? How does public opinion relate to public officials?

Trending Questions Best foods for weight loss? What pokediger1 password in roblox? What is mrflimflams roblox password?

Is it better to take a shower in the morning or at night? Is breakfast the most important meal of the day? What are the duties of a health prefect? Hottest Questions What is Juneteenth? How many pennies in dollars? How many novels did Charles Dickens write? Who discovered vaccines and how? What continent is New Zealand on? Do we know what dinosaurs sounded like? How many signers of the Declaration of Independence became president?

Previously Viewed What are the sources of public opinion? Unanswered Questions Write a Shell program to find the smallest digits of a number? Quantos KM mais ou menos dura a embreagem de um carro? Who is the actress in the glade atmosphere collection commercial? Was chuck connors gay and married? What is the summary of the house guest paul darcy boles? What are the Advantage and disadvantage of mechanical transducer? Mga positibo at negatibong epekto ng impluwensya ng mga espanyol sa kulturang Filipino?

Is nick cannon related to Snoop Dogg? All Rights Reserved. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply.


  1. Please wear your manners Mr. IF YOU are here to criticize his accent or the way he speak.

Add a comment

Your email will not be published. Required fields are marked *